1. Introduction The amalgamation of 1914 meant at that time, different things to different people. To the ordinary Nigerian, white rule was preferred to rule by traditional institutions. To the few educated Nigerians and they were very few at the time except in Lagos with a inumber of professionals; they saw amalgamation as opportunity to aspire to the whiteman’s positions. The educated standard six holders looked forward then, to be employed as artisans, clerks, police officers, prison warders etc.
The traditional institutions on the whole saw themselves as junior partners with the British in the indirect rule system. There was amalgamation but there was no integration and to this day the position has remained the same.
2. The statement of Tafawa Balewa that there was nothing in common between the Muslim North and the Christian South is partly correct especially with respect to cultural and religious rites. The statement by Awolowo that Nigeria was merely a geographical expression is also correct, in that both the North and the South were ruled by powerful emirs and chiefs, two of the three major tribes in Nigeria. The Yoruba and Ndigbo were untied into the two linguistic groups as a result of the translation of the Bible into Yoruba before the Ibo language of what later constitute the Yoruba and Igbo Regions of Nigeria came to being, as a result of the translation of the Bible. The concept of the North as a single linguistic group, which was exploited by position of the First Republic was also as a result of the translation of the Bible into Hausa. As there was no single ideal or ideology that binds the people of Nigeria together at the time the statements were made, it is incorrect to regard Nigeria as a Nation. We need to have a critical look at this.
3. The Sardauna of Sokoto, Ahmadu Bello made a statement in 1953 that “1914 was a mistake” which was made out of frustration at the attitude of some Southerners in the Federal Parliament following the self-government resolution moved by Anthony Enahoro of the Action Group. These Southern politicians were seen as holding the Northern politicians in contempt because of the way the North and the British related to one another and as Sardauna said both the British and the North spoke the same language. It is time that we work for integration and one ideology.
4. Reason for Amalgamation The main reasons for amalgamation were that (a) the two countries (Northern Nigeria and Southern Nigeria), Northern Nigeria was eating into the British treasury. Whereas Southern Nigeria was operated by the British with a surplus, Northern Nigeria required the British treasury’s subvention to keep it afloat. This was contrary to the colonial policy which demanded that the colonies must be profitable to the British Government. Therefore amalgamating Northern Nigeria and Southern Nigeria Britain could harvest the fruits of their two Nigerian colonies. Another reason is that a single railway policy would benefit land locked Northern Nigeria. The unity or integration of the two counties - Nigerias was not part of the British Agenda. However the more cogent reason for lack is that colonial officers of the Northern Nigeria and those of the Southern Nigeria were at “war” with each another and Kirk-Greene wrote: “One is reminded of the quip about the mutual hostility and regional loyalty of the Administrative staff of the Northern and Southern Provinces up to 1939: if all Nigerians had withdrawn from the country, there would have been a civil war between the two groups of Europeans!” [Lugard and The Amalgamation of Nigeria A. M. H. Kirk-Greene page 37, para 34]
5. In addition to these facts is the general attitude of Northern Nigeria British officers who disliked the people of Lagos. The reason for this was the cosmopolitan nature of the colony of Lagos with educated elite, not only from Nigeria but others from counties - Ghana, Sierra Leone and even Brazil. Colonial officers generally were made up more of British, Scottish and Welsh officers who disliked democracy in their home countries of England, Scotland and Wales, and had gone to the colonies as masters not inhibited by democratic principles of rule of law and human rights.
6. Between the period of the two World Wars, there was very little of constitutional development of Nigeria. The boundary between Northern and Southern Nigeria was arbitrally carved out. Southern Nigeria was further divided into East and West to the advantage of Northern Nigeria.
7. It was after the Second World War that real administration commenced, Britain had began to consider granting of independence to its colonies. Unlike India where the British stayed for some three hundred years, Nigeria was in fact considered not ripe for independence. The British in effect handed over Nigeria to the Emirs, the caliphate of Sokoto in particular at
independence with a mock, battle and the return of the caliphate flag. The consequence of this handover is that Nigeria to this day confused constituted authority like the British Colonial masters with constitutional authority, in that at every point in time before 1914 and after constitutional authority is often being subordinated to constituted authority of the traditional institutions.
8. Liberal Democracy At Independence, All Nigerians agreed so it seemed that Nigeria was to take the path of Liberal Democracy. Unfortunately the Muslim North had other intentions different from liberal Democracy. History for some unexplained reasons was not taught in secondary schools of Nigeria but it became clear at a stage in Nigerian history that there was an attempt to make sharia – ‘a system of rule and of society of which the important ingredient is the operation of Muslim law” as the source of legislation in Nigeria epitomized by Muslim military Heads of State between 1975 and 1999.
9. Before independence in 1960 the Nigerian delegation to all constitutional conferences accepted Liberal Democracy as the country’s ideology and the Constitution 1960 was written on the basis of Liberal Democracy. Willink wrote: “the whole structure of the proceedings leading to independence is based on the belief that Nigeria means to follow the road of liberal democracy and parliamentary government.”
Michael Vickers in his book A Nation Betrayed: Nigeria and the Minorities Commission of 1957 wrote: “Each Regional Government was determined to entrench the position and power of the dominant ethnic group in its respective Region. Indeed in this there was a substantial irony. Custom and usage had rendered the British-created Administrative structure as the sole structure acceptable to Nigeria's leaders as the template for the country's envisaged Independence 'political frame: Furthermore, as Nigeria's leaders rejected out of hand adoption of any African or indigenous constitutional model, it was the foreign Westminster Model that was unanimously favored.” [Page 266] [Emphasis supplied]
10. Northern leaders accepted Liberal Democracy but it would appear that they had preference for Sharia based on the findings of Willink’s Commission. It is necessary for nonMuslims to note that under Islamic law, lying is not only permissible but obligatory for Muslims in some situations such as Islamizing a Nation like Nigeria. It is safe therefore to assume that while pretending to go along with democracy, their ideology of sharia was rigorously being promoted in secret and with deception. Some Muslims especially in the North preferred – Sharia, Willink wrote: “Many witnesses have referred to their fears of Fulani-Hausa domination, and though the meaning of this phrase was not always expressed in terms, or even consciously analyzed
by those who used it, it clearly implies a system of rule and of society of which an important ingredient is the operation of Muslim Law. Some witnesses have specifically referred to this system of law as an object of fear. --- These fears are in the main of two kinds. There are those arising from the fact that Muslim Law makes a distinction between Muslims and non-Muslims, and there is also a group of fears based on the belief that the judiciary is at present closely associated with the executive and that in the future this association may become closer.” [Report of the Commission appointed to enquire into the fears of Minorities and the means of allaying them Page 66]. [Emphasis supplied]
11. This explains why Willink recommended the inclusion of Human Rights provisions in the 1960 Constitution. In the report, he wrote under the chapter dealing with Fundamental Rights: “Although almost all the witnesses who came before us were insistent that nothing but a separate state could meet their problems, one group asked only for provision in the Constitution guaranteeing certain fundamental rights. These were the Christian bodies who appeared before us both in Lagos, on behalf of their organizations throughout Nigeria, and again in the Northern Region. Some other witnesses said they would welcome such provisions in the Constitution but were afraid that they would not be sufficient. Provisions of this kind in the Constitution are difficult to enforce and sometimes difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, we think they should be inserted. Their presence defines beliefs widespread among democratic countries and provides a standard to which appeal may be made by those whose rights are infringed. A Government determined to abandon democratic courses will find ways of violating them but they are of great value in preventing a steady deterioration in standards of freedom and the unobtrusive encroachment of a Government on individual rights. We have therefore considered what provisions might suitably be inserted in the Constitution and have given particular attention to the Convention on Human Rights to which, we understand, Her Majesty’s Government has adhered on behalf of the Nigerian Government. Where the matter which we think needs expression has already been provided for in the Convention on Human Rights, we simply place below the relevant provision in that Convention, but we do not necessarily recommend the exact wording of the Convention and it may be that constitutional lawyers will wish to draft in different terms.” [Report of the Commission appointed to enquire into the fears of Minorities and the means of allaying them, Page 97, paragraphs 37 and 38] [Emphasis supplied]
General Sani Abacha and to lesser extent Generals Buhari and Babangida violated Human Rights when they were Heads of State. Over the years in the amendment of the constitutions from 1963 to 1979 and 1999, the Human Rights provisions have been wittled down with numerous provisos. The three Generals have one thing in common, they were disloyal to their Commander in Chief, Gowon, Shagari and their oath as military men
12. Sharia and the Muslim Brotherhood The Genesis of Muslim Brotherhood It is necessary to explain why and how the Muslim Brotherhood came into existence. The defeat of the Ottoman Empire and its allies led to the Empire’s dissolution as a unified entity in July 1923 and the establishment of the modern state of Turkey by Mustapha Kemal, who was given the title “Ataturk” or “Father of the Turks.” Determined to tie his country firmly to the West, Ataturk sought to diminish Turkey’s Islamic character, notably by abolishing the caliphate in
favour of secular rule. Kemal also banned the growing of beards by men and wearing of hijab by women. He banned as well, the call to prayer by muezzins; abolished the Turkish language’s script, replaced it with Latin script and made the Turkish military the custodian of secular tradition. This also explains why some Muslims in Nigeria see the Nigerian Armed Forces as custodians of democracy. The dissolution of the caliphate and the transformation of Turkey from the center of the Islamic world to a secular nation did not sit well with some in the global Islamic community (ummah). One of those determined to restore the caliphate was Hassan al Banna, the son of a Muslim imam who lived outside of Cairo, Egypt. In 1928, he founded an organization known as the al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin, the Society of Muslim Brothers or the Muslim Brotherhood (MB), with the sole aim of unifying the Islamic states under a new caliphate and subordinating all lands to the Caliph’s rule pursuant to Sharia with Sharia as the source of all legislation. The Muslim Brotherhood’s byelaws make this very clear. The Muslim Brotherhood is an International Muslim body which seeks to establish Allah’s law in the land by achieving the spiritual goals of Islam. Its objectives include the need to work on establishing the Islamic State and the sincere support for a global cooperation in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia. The Muslim Brotherhood in achieving these objectives make every effort for the establishment of educational, social, economic, and scientific institutions and the establishment of mosques, schools, clinics, shelters, clubs, as well as the formation of committees to regulate zakat affairs and alms. Also, the Islamic nation must be fully prepared to fight the tyrants and the enemies of Allah as a prelude to establishing the Islamic state. Muslim Brotherhood had a very strong influence in Nigeria and the British knew it and that was why they sent Gumi to Ruda College in Khartoum in 1954-55 rather than AlAzhar in Cairo. This notwithstanding Gumi adopted Brotherhood objectives including the establishment of Jama'atu Nasril Islam (JNI) and Moslem Students' Society (MSS) organs of the Brotherhood in NIgeria.
13. Paul M. Lubeck wrote: Responsibility for the construction of the Muslim public sphere [in Nigeria] fell instead upon the shoulders of the northern nationalist leaders and their advisors. These men had been educated in elite English-language schools like Katsina College, hybrid, but essentially modern institutions, which had been established by the colonial state to rationalize indirect rule and create an educated administrative class. Educated in Western as well as Islamic learning, the Muslim nationalist leaders struggled among themselves, as well as with the British and southern nationalists, over the questions of how to balance national and regional powers, the position of non-Muslims in the Northern Region's government, and the role that shari'a would play in the embryonic Nigerian politics. [Shari’a Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World page 260]
14. It has become very clear that military in 1975 decided that Islam should play a very important role in Nigerian politics for two reasons (a) Hausa, Fulani, Kanuri who in 1975
dominated the officers cadre in the Armed Forces saw military rule not only as Sharia compliant, but as an instrument with which to Islamize Nigeria and retain power in perpetuity (b) The Same Ethnic Nationalities are of Arab stoke or descendants and would rather look up to the Middle East Arab world. President Shehu Shagari was overthrown because of his lukewarm attitude to participate further in Sharia promotion and would rather promote democracy. The contention that the Nigeria military was the custodian of our democracy and therefore in a position to stage a coup because of flawed elections of 1983 was a fallacy. Rather, the coup was staged in furtherance of Sharia and Arab culture, the way the South was assimilated into Western culture. It is pertinent to mention that Nigeria has MSS and JNI which Gumi said he established for other reasons but which in fact were established to meet the criteria of the Brotherhood of Egypt.
15. Sharia and Maitatsine Enquiry 1981 The next demand for sharia was at the Maitatsine Commission of Enquiry where it was made very clear by the leadership of the Jama’atu Nasir Islam JNI, Muslim Student Society (MSS) that their preference was Sharia which to them was divine injunction over and above man made laws including constitutions. In other words Sharia must be the source of all manmade laws.
Ibrahim El- Zakzaky at the Tribunal of Inquiry on Kano Disturbances in 1981. The Report states: “M.S.S. members on 4th May, 1980, when ten bus-loads of the members drove round the city with the following inscriptions in the buses:- (a) 'Down with the Nigerian Constitution; and (b) ‘Islam only.’ On 20th August, 1980, El-Zakzaky was reported to be circulating in the Northern States, pamphlets captioned, "Fadakarwa ga Musulmin Nigeria" (Calling on Moslems in Nigeria") in which he condemned the Nigerian Constitution for being anti-Islamic, called for an Islamic revolution, and urged Islamic students to rise against the Federal Government. He also demanded the recognition of the Sharia Law. EI-Zakzaky is reported to have visited on several occasion, and he recently returned from Iran where he was said to have received training in planning and executing students' unrest.” [Report of Tribunal of Inquiry on Kano Disturbances page 89 paragraph 334] The above show that some Nigerians are bent on Sharia not liberal democracy.
16. The findings of the Commission include the statement, this Tribunal states: “to get this category of Religious leaders to concede that, under our constitution, a man may practice any religion of his choice in whole or modified form or even an entirely new creation of his own so long as in doing so he does not profane or condemn or ridicule other people's doctrine by means of public speeches or the use of cassettes. That so long as he does not use abusive words or in any way employ compulsion, blackmail or threats in converting followers to his side our Constitution guarantees him the freedom to so worship.” [Report of Tribunal of Inquiry on Kano Disturbances (paragraphs 336 - 339) page 89]
Unfortunately sharia proponents refuse to accept this constitutional proposition, as this, they said would contradict the Islamic doctrine that sharia must be the source of all laws.
17. After the Report of the Aniagolu’s Tribunal was released, the military government that followed, succeeded in uniting all Muslim groups in the country, the Sunnis, the Shittes, the Ahmadiyas, the Izala, and every group. Military men began a “romance” with the “Islamic Brotherhood” of Egypt as shown below.
18. What followed after this Commission of Inquiry was the overthrow of the Shagari’s Government Shagari’s autobiography “Beckons to Serve”, shows very clearly that there were some connections between the Nigerian Military and the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt. Shagari wrote: “Muhammad Carpenter was Nigeria’s Ambassador to Italy at the time the coup took place at the end of the year 1983. He said that during that year he was able to gather very authentic information about some suspicious movements by some highly placed Nigerians who had been passing through Rome from London en route to Egypt and one or two Balkan countries. Most of these travelers who were frequently in transit at Da Vinci Airport, Rome were senior military officers, serving and retired, together with a well-known Nigerian business tycoon. Ambassador Carpenter, with the help of his security agents, was able to trace their destinations as well as the purpose of their journeys eastwards. He gathered that these people were planning a coup against his government. Towards this end, they had chosen the Egyptian style of military coup in which the plotters used General Mohammed Neguib as a scapegoat to achieve their ends. He alleged that these conspirators had carefully studied Colonel Abdel Nasser's style of military coup and military rule and were determined to implement same in Nigeria. He gave me the names of those involved but regretted that he was unable to do this at the right time because he could not trust anyone except himself to convey this information directly to me. Unfortunately, however, the military struck before he could find an excuse to come home to Nigeria and report the matter to me.” [Shehu Shagari: Beckon to Serve page 470]
19. The overthrow of Shagari, distinguished Fundamentalists from ordinary Muslims. Although Shagari is from Sokoto and all his security personnel were from the North West of the country, except the Inspector General of Police Mr. Sunday Adewusi. Max Siollun in his book ‘Soldiers of Fortune” wrote that Shagari was removed from office by Muslim officers even though his security details are not only Muslims but from his home state and the North. The author wrote: “Umaru Shinkafi - Director–General of the NSO - Sokoto Colonel Mohammed Bello Kaliel - Commander, Brigade of Guards - Sokoto Sunday Adedayo Adewusi - Inspector-General of Police - Oyo Mamman Nasarawa - Commissioner of Police, Lagos - Sokoto Maj-Gen. Haladu Anthony Hannaniya - GOC 1st Mechanized Infantry Division Kaduna Major-Gen. Muhammadu “MD” Jega - GOC, 2nd Mechanized Division - Sokoto Major-Gen. Muhammadu Buhari - GOC, 3rd Armoured Division - Kaduna Major-Gen. Zamani Lekwot - GOC, 82nd Division - Kaduna Maj-General Abdullahi Shelleng - Commandant, Nigerian Defence Academy – Gongola”
The reign of Buhari, Babangida, Abacha were attempts to entrench Islam as the source of all laws as decree by these Muslim dictators constituted the source of law for the country.
20. Membership of Islamic Organization Nigeria became a member of the organization of Islam Conference OLC and D8 in questionable circumstances
The OIC is a political, economic and social organization of Muslim countries worldwide. Gumi had tried to force Nigeria into OIC in 1969, at its Conference in Rabat Morocco. General Yakubu Gowon had to write to say that Gumi had no mandate to speak for Nigeria with the overthrow of Shagari, and with Babangida as military President, Gumi found the opportunity with the support of other Muslim technocrats. In 1986, Nigeria was invited to Fez Morocco to the ministerial conference of the OIC, which was not programmed for admission of new members. The Chief of General Staff and Minister of External Affairs, both Christians were not put in the picture. The full story concerning the OIC has now be given by Dan Agbese, one can say “from the horses mouth” “Early in January 1986, Babangida stepped on the slippery slope and bought the country close to a religious war. He 'smuggled' Nigeria into the Organization of Islamic Countries, OIC. The French news agency, Agence France Press, better known by its acronym of AFP, broke the story. The Guardian newspaper picked it up. It shook a nation suspicious of inter-religious advantages. The pressure by Nigerian Muslims for the admission of the country into the OIC began in September 1969, with the meeting of Arab countries in Rabat, Morocco. The late Alhaji Abubakar Gumi, grand khadi of northern Nigeria, headed a delegation to the meeting. General Gowon, the then head of state, sensed the danger in what the Muslims were trying to do and promptly wrote to King Hassan of Morocco to say that the delegation was on its own and did not represent Nigeria. On the strength of that letter, Gumi and his group were not admitted into the conference but were allowed in as observers. Nigeria had put the toe in the door. All federal governments after Gowon, including Shagari's, resisted the pressure to take the country through the door. Babangida's close friends like Moshood Abiola, pressurized him to take Nigeria through the door. In December 1985, OIC invited Nigeria to its ministerial conference in Fez, Morocco, January 6 -10, 1986. This was a routine invitation and merited only an instruction from the ministry of external affairs to the Nigerian ambassador to Morocco to attend the meeting as an observer. However, Ahmadu Hamza, permanent secretary, ministry of external affairs, took a copy of the invitation to Babangida. Babangida approved that a Nigerian delegation led by Rilwanu Lukman, minister of mines and power, be given a diplomatic cover as an official delegation to the conference. The Minister of External Affairs gives such diplomatic covers. But Bolaji Akinyemi, the minister, was kept out of the decision and no one asked him to issue the diplomatic cover. No matter. Lukman's delegation made up of Alhaji Abubakar Alhaji, permanent secretary, ministry of economic planning, Gumi, Abdulkadir Ahmed, governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria, and Ibrahim Dasuki, secretary-general of the Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, had the necessary diplomatic cover. The delegation formally tendered Nigeria's application to join the OIC to the conference. This was what the organization had been waiting for. Nigeria was promptly admitted into the OIC. In its eagerness to admit Nigeria, the OIC waived its constitutional requirement that stipulates that a country applying for membership must wait for one year to know its fate. Under the procedure and protocol, Babangida was required to bring the issue of Nigeria's
desire to join the OIC before the council of ministers. The Armed Forces Ruling Council would then have the final say on the matter. It did not happen that way. And so when the story broke, all those who should have known but did not know, denied it happened. Commodore Okoh Ebitu Ukiwe, the Chief of General Staff and the number two man to Babangida, knew nothing about it and said so when reporters confronted him with the AFP report. He said the matter was never discussed at any level of government. Prince Tony Momoh, the minister of information, corroborated Ukiwe. What the press dubbed the OIC affair pitted Christians against Muslims - and divided the country along one of its biggest fault lines - religion. Christian leaders demanded immediate withdrawal of the country from the organization. Muslim leaders insisted Nigeria must remain a member. The polity was heated. If Babangida expected this to be a storm in a teacup, he was wrong - and he knew it. Buffeted and fazed by the storm entirely of his creation, he was forced to do some damage control to mollify the country.” [Ibrahim Babangida: The Military, Politics and Power in Nigeria by Dan Agbese pages 353 – 354]
Nigerians were not officially informed until 1996 when Dasuki as Sultan informed the Pope, who was on a visit to Nigeria that Nigeria is a member of the OIC. Babangida and some Muslims played Taqiyya on the Nation.
21. Politics under Sharia Babangida gave Nigeria two political parties – the National Republican Convention (NRC) and the Social Democratic Party (SDP). They were funded by the Government and New Breed politicians were made to head these parties. The idea was that candidates would begin to go to the people for votes, unfortunately the opposite was the case, where candidates go to the Presidency for acceptance and for funds. The Presidency preferred that candidates were approved by the security through security clearance, and those not wanted were disqualified on such spurious ground as belonging to secret society, which cannot be objectively verified. The end result was that only those that had “skeleton in their cupboards” or those “who cannot make waves” were approved to contest elections. The military was determined to create a political dynasty as can be inferred from the book Ibrahim Babangida: The Military, Politics and Power in Nigeria in which the author Dan Agbese wrote: “Shortly before Babangida gave the politicians the go-ahead in 1989 to form political associations and prepare for the return to civil rule, he was confronted with a tempting option. Some of his officers were still not convinced that the politicians could be trusted to rule the country in accordance with the rules of the game of politics. These officers were members of his kitchen cabinet, his trusted men, nicknamed the 'IBB boys’. They did not support the return to a full-blown civilian regime. They preferred some form of arrangement in which the country was ruled by a succession of “civilianized” military men. They canvassed what they called the ‘Nasser model.” [Emphasis supplied] [Ibrahim Babangida: The Military, Politics and Power in Nigeria Dan Agbese page 285]
22. This explains why a former military General and former head of State General Olusegun Obasanjo was invited to head the government in 1999. The two political parties were increased to three, progressively and today are over 20.
The new strategy as can be inferred from actions and decisions, is to convert a section in the Presidency as an “authority” or “invisible government” which from time to time would overrule the President or ignore instruction from the President. General Olusegun Obasanjo suffered this disability with respect to Sharia in twelve Northern states and now President Goodluck Jonathan with respect to Boko Haram by which his instructions and directions are ignored and in the process re-establish by action not words that the Constitution is not the source of legislation in Nigeria. The “doctrine of necessity” as authority to swear in Vice-President Jonathan as acting President was aimed at ignoring provision of the Constitution.
23. The “invisible government” power and its control of political parties was enhanced by the 1999 Constitution under Section 40 which abolished independent candidacy, thus a Nigerian has the right to vote but not the right to be voted for. To implement this constitutional provision to its maximum effect, Nigeria has to have “one” party if not “one” authority in the Presidency that controls all the parties, Dan Agbese wrote: “Gamal Abdel Nasser was a colonel in the Egyptian army. He and 89 oilier officers in the Egyptian army, known as Free Officers, staged Africa's first coup d'etat on July 23, 1952. They overthrew King Faruq; Nasser was the leader of the Free Officers movement. He, however, allowed General Muhammed Naguib to assume power as prime minister after the overthrow of the king. Nasser was the power behind the Naguib thrown. He shoved Naguib aside in 1954 and took over as prime minister from 1954-56. In 1956, he drew up a new constitution for the country that formally abolished the monarchy and replaced it with a one-party presidential system. Nasser dropped his uniform and became the sole candidate in the first presidential election in 1956. He won the election and remained president until his death in September 1970.” [Emphasis supplied] [Ibrahim Babangida: The Military, Politics and Power in Nigeria Dan Agbese page 285]
The deposition of Sultan Dasuki by General Abacha, the “Alhaji” was a first step in the process of abolishing the monarchy in Nigeria. Today Boko Haram members are occupying some emirs’ palaces in North East Nigeria. The end result is that Aso Villa has control over all parties haven financed them, and whenever it pleases allows cross-carpeting, ignites dispute between the parties all to make democracy difficult to manage in Nigeria and to ensure that Sharia is relevant as another source of legislation in Nigeria. Christians have no political party, all the parties are Villa owned and controlled. Christians do not have the financial muscle or fire power. All it has is ideas and the Villa is not interested in ideas but politics of fire power and money.
The CSMN is of the view that a Christian and a Muslim party will serve the interest of Nigeria. The military ensured that while making ethnic and religious parties illegal, promoted Mulish and Arab organizations, which metamorphosed into the invisible government in the Villa under the
principle of Taqiyya. Freedom of Association means having gender, religious, ethnic etc parties. Muslim/Muslim and Christian/Christian tickets are legitimate and should be encouraged.
24. The Courts The legal profession is one of the oldest if not the oldest registered profession in Nigeria. However until 19--- when the first Northern Nigeria lawyer Abdul Razak was called to the bar, legal service in Northern Nigeria was provided by Southerners. When states were created in 1967 and later, Southern Judges were appointed as Chief Judges and Judges of these new states to set up the courts etc. Today, all these courts are headed by indigenes or Northerners.
25. However with the introduction of civil service rule with respect to appointments of Chief Justice of Nigeria and making it a close shop for serving Judges of the Supreme Court, not open to the profession in general as was the case previously. For a number of years now we have had mostly Judges from the North as Chief Justice of Nigeria. New courts were created, the federal revenue court they later became Federal High Court and the Industrial Court with Southerners as pioneer heads. Solomon Asemota in his address to the Supreme Court on September 22, 2014 said:
“When one reads about Sharia, the impression one gets is that Sharia and democracy are incompatible and cannot co-exist. Nigerians need to be educated otherwise. Abdur Rahman Doi formally of Centre of Islamic Legal Studies, Faculty of Law, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria wrote “in Islam, Allah alone is the sovereign and it is he who has the right to ordain a path for guidance of mankind. Thus it is only Sharia that liberates man from servitude to no other than Allah. This is the only reason why Muslims are obliged to strive for the implementation of that path and that of no other path.” Emphasis supplied . When this interpretation is read in conjuncture with the Muslim doctrine of Taqiyya which makes it permissible for Muslim to lie especially to non-Muslim to safeguard himself personally or to protect Islam, in addition to the way Nigeria became a member of the OIC in 1986, (it took another 12 years – 1998 before the true position was made public by Sultan Dasuki), makes the demand for a dialogue between proponents of Democracy and Sharia necessary. Those of us lawyers not trained in Sharia need to be convinced that it is a mistake to vest sovereignty on the people and that in this 21st Century, there is no other way for governance except through Sharia.” [Compatibility of Sharia and Democracy page 3]
He criticized the judgment in Amaechi v. INEC “The Common Law or Judge made law was prominently re-established in Nigeria in the case of Amaechi v. INEC  5 NWLR Part 1080 particularly at page 318. Although a number of lawyers disagreed with this judgment which has now been repealed by legislation I find it as a good illustration of Judge made law in Nigeria. One had hoped that Judge made law would have been extended by the Supreme Court to the case of Fawehinmi v. Babangida  NWLR [Pt.808] page 604 also reported as Oputa v. Babangida  1.SC [Pt.110] page 86. ThisDay newspaper of February 1, 2003 had a front-page caption “the Supreme Court overrules Oputa. Late Justice Oputa had tried to compel former military dictators Muhammadu Buhari, Ibrahim Babangida, Abdulsalami Abubakar to appear before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to answer allegations made against them.”
[Compatibility of Sharia and Democracy pages 5 - 6]
26. One would have thought that Sections 13 and 14 of the 1999 Constitution would be the guiding principle with respect to election cases 13. It shall be the duty and responsibility of all organs of government, and of all authorities and persons, exercising legislative, executive or judicial powers, to conform to, observe and apply the provisions of this Chapter of this Constitution. 14. (1) The Federal Republic of Nigeria shall be a State based on the principles of democracy and social justice. (2) It is hereby, accordingly, declared that: (a) sovereignty belongs to the people of Nigeria from whom government through this Constitution derives all its powers and authority; (b) the security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of government: and (c) the participation by the people in their government shall be ensured in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
27. The principle of Democracy was not served when a governor is appointed by the Supreme Court not be election in a democracy that requires peoples participation. Fortunately this decisions has been overruled by legislation – the amended Electorate Act. The author saw this decision as part of the ideological war – Sharia against Liberal Democracy.
28. Working from set Answers by the Invisible Government Our colonial masters often worked from set answers. The master knows what he wanted before setting out to achieve these answers. In a Democracy leaders work from set questions and leave it to people to provide the answers. There are numerous examples of a democratic government of Nigeria working from answers, but two will suffice (a) The Oputa Panel where a Commission was set up without the backing of an Act, the anticipated result was that the Commission will be rendered illegal which the Supreme Court did; (b) The Okurounmu Presidential Advisory Committee which Solomon Asemota SAN submitted a Minority Report which was receipted for, but both the Commission and the Presidency denied receipt of any Minority Report and went on to constitute the National Conference, whose report is a compendium of amendment to the 1999 Constitution rather than a brand new Constitution approved in a Referendum, which the people of Nigeria desire. The two instances are to maintain the status quo.
29. Weakening Local Government by the Invisible Government Because of the special position of the Presidency in the determination of candidates seeking elections, these candidates do not bother to go from door to door of their constituencies to elicit votes, rather they rely on ethnic and religion as the main canvassers for candidates. This practice is merely following the examples of Nigerians of Arab descent who have benefited in the Nigerian project for being Muslims, Hausa Fulani and Kanuri.
30. The Use of Security Apparatus by the Invisible Government All instrument of cohesion are in the hands of the Federal Government – Armed Forces, ParaMilitary, Police, Customs, Immigration, Road Safety, Civil Defence, National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) and Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) with the states and local government left to make do with self help of vigilantes and similar organization, thus the states and local governments are left at the mercy of the various parties’ political thugs and cult groups. The security of the Nigerian people cannot be guaranteed without state police and local government police and this can only come about when the political parties appreciate what is good for the ordinary Nigerian not only the elites.
31. Events of Note Since 1975 It was after the overthrow of the Gowon’s administration and the purge of the Civil Service, the Judiciary, the introduction of the Nigerian Security Organization to replace the Special Branch that the intelligence community expanded and numerous bodies were created in the Armed Forces and the Police, one can say that Nigeria was a Police state during Buhari, Babangida and Abacha’s era. However it is necessary to identify the following events.
In 2004 as a result of stolen crude about 600,000 barrels per day over a long period resulted in the estimated loss to the country.
a. Fundamental Movements In 2006 there was a widespread of fundamentalists’ movement in the North with street demonstration involving men, women and children openly displaying banners of the Ayatollah. Funding was being provided for directly from the Middle East, training camps were provided by Col. Gadafi for Nigerians. In 2006, Niger Delta unrest grew at a remarkable rate, state governors were arming and deploying gangs, cult groups and vigilantes. These boys were abandoned after elections, 2004, 2007 and violence escalated with escalating death toll among the civil populace.
b. Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) Mend emerged in late 2005 and was used for kidnapping in the Niger Delta which crippled the oil sector. It moved from stealing crude oil and forcing production through hostage taking. Other militant groups and youth followed. The cult groups, street gangs of Niger Delta initiated into well acquired militants using guerilla tactic to mount a major assault on Port Harcourt, Warri was almost lost to militant activity.
During the period the militants moved from cutlass to AK47s, RPGs and remote detonated explosive devices supplied by illegal arms dealers. Weapons were smuggled into Nigeria through ports and distributed without interruption.
The CSMN does not know those who perpetuated these atrocities but know those who could have prevented the occurrence of these events but did not
32. Nigeria first Suicide Bomber The Vanguard of Tuesday, December 19 2003 on page 33 wrote as reported by Ochereome Nnanna: “a couple of weeks ago in our new capital city Abuja, the unbelievable happened. It is unbelievable because these are some of the things that people would say "cannot happen" in Nigeria. But from the information I gathered from the brother of one of the surviving victims in my recent trip to Abuja, Nigeria may have recorded its first incidence of suicide attack, the daily diet of terror in the Middle East. Chief Foster Ogbalu, a middle aged man from Abagana in Anambra State sat in a city transit bus with about fifteen other commuters. He was traveling from Gwagwalada to the University of Abuja to fill the forms for his post-graduate studies when, on the way, tragedy in human form, walked in. The bus pulled up at a bus stop and presently, a man holding a covered plastic bucket entered the bus. He made sure he was the last person to enter. Then, he bolted the door. The driver, conductor and some of the commuters were still wondering what the strange man was up to, when he uncovered the bucket and threw the contents of the bucket – petrol around the bus. Most of the passengers were partially or wholly doused in the deadly inflammable liquid. There was utter confusion. The man next reached into his pocket and brought out a box of matches. That was when Ogbalu knew that the lives of everyone in the bus were in danger. He raised the alarm. "it is petrol! Run! He hollered". A stampede ensued. People rushed towards the only open door. Ogbalu realized that if he as the nearest person to the maniac also attempted to run away and the man struck that match he would surely go up in flames, for he was one of those almost completely wetted by the fuel. So, in a desperate move, he went after the man. He grabbed him from the back, but unfortunately, one of the man's hands was free. As they struggled and Ogbalu edged them both towards the driver's open door, the man did not even try to shake loose from Ogbalu's grip, He concentrated on striking the match. He eventually succeeded. Fire immediately engulfed him, Ogbalu and the bus. Ogbalu let go of him and scampered out of the bus a human torch in full conflagration. It was like something you saw in the movies. The difference though, was that the fires in the movies are faked. The actors come out of their routine without a scratch. But the fire on Ogbalu was real enough. Today he is lying critically ill at the National Hospital, Abuja, all peeled up but now out of danger list. The only part of him that is free from the burns is the hollow of his eyes. There is not a single hair on his head. The attacker died in the inferno, burnt beyond recognition and identification. --- Nigeria looks very much like a very attractive haven for agents of terrorist
outfits, which are ready to part with huge sums of money. Illiteracy, poverty and the eagerness of politicians to exploit religious sentiments to score against their opponents added to the already existing religious bigotry are factors that can attract trouble makers. In addition, the nation is just porous, so porous that foreign nationals form cells of soldiers of fortune and make themselves available for hire by those who have an axe to grind with their neighbours. The question is whether the authorities even bother themselves with this kind of problem. Are we waiting until (heavens forbid) something really earthshaking happens? This is a wake-up call for all Nigerians." The presenter wrote to the Inspector General of Police, Tafa Balogun in December 2002 and confirming the incident, informed us that the incident was under investigation. We heard nothing further about this incident and we are not in a position to say whether the man acted alone or is a member of an organization or group.
33. Boko Haram Boko Haram dates back to 1980. The sect emanated from the Izala Movement which was created by Skeikh Isma’ila Idrisbin Zakariyaorithin when Sheikh Gumi was the Grand Khadi of Northern Nigeria (1962-67) and created the enabling climate for the creation of the Izala Movement. Gumi felt the need for the renewal of Islam to be purified and to return to its roots as in the time of Prophet Mohammed. This movement established itself and found acceptance first amongst the Kanuris in the Northeast of Nigeria. The Izala Movement itself is an offshoot of Walhabism that grew up in Saudi Arabia.
34. Boko Haram is a splinter group of Izala and its first leader Mohammed Yusuf from Yobe State received instruction from Sheikh Ja’afar in the Indimi Mosque. Yusuf was initially attracted to the Taliban and became a member of the Sahaba Group formed in 1995 with its leader as Abubakar Lawan. He raised the Taliban flag over the Sahaba he set up in Yobe State having been pressured by the adherents in his group to do so. Later, this Group of about six, built a Mosque on a land provided by a relative called Baa Fugu, whom Yusuf stayed in his house and married his daughter.
35. Yusuf became very popular and claimed to be disturbed by what he regarded as the corruption in Islam and the Nigerian Polity and set out to purify both. This attempt was however compromised when he was appointed by Governor Sherrif who charged him with delivering the 2007 election for him. Yusuf himself however was to be accused of accepting funds from Governor Sherrif to ensure that he won the election. This resulted in friction between him and Ja’afar who was not happy at the development. After a series of heated discussions on the matter, Ja’afar was assassinated during Friday morning prayers at the Dorayi Juma’at mosque on April 12 ,2007 the day he was in fact going to denounce Yusuf’s action.
36. After this development, Yusuf’s teaching eventually led to the recruitment of young men prepared to die for Islam and from then on, the crop of suicide bombers sprouted. Noteworthy is the fact that Yusuf’s Group known as Yusufiya-Jama’at reviled the name Boko Haram which emerged as a name in the mid 1990’s in Yobe State. Yusuf regarded his primary assignment as the establishment of Sharia throughout the whole of Nigeria and this was in addition to the purification of Islam. Thereafter, the Yusufiya sect sought to eradicate key figures of the state leadership structure including security personnel.
37. Boko Haram came into popular usage in the media and it was employed to generally describe the sect operating in three groups. After 2009 on Yusuf’s death, his second in command Shekau took over and his sole purpose was to disparage both the Borno State Governor and President Jonathan. A second group that emerged was funded and armed by politicians opposed to the Borno State Government. There was yet a third group, loose adherents of the sect who simply employed it for kidnapping and robbing banks to make money. It was the group led by Shekau that bombed police headquarters in Abuja and which also entered into dialogue with government with a view to signing a peace accord. In fact the original Boko Haram by Yusuf has since ceased operations.
38. Boko Haram and the Intelligence Agency The findings of the Christian Social Movement including the following: a) Those in the military who benefit financially from the conflict know that their money making enterprises are about to come to an end. The public naming of a former chief of Army Staff had demonstrated that senior military are not immune from scrutiny; b) Ambassador Hassan Tukur, President Jonathan’s Principal Private Secretary is the most senior ambassador and the arguably one of the most respected Muslims in Nigeria. He has vast diplomatic experience having worked close to Heads of State since Babangida was in power. Ambassador Tukur has worked closely with Stephen Davis on Boko Haram peace discussions for the last two years having been personally assigned to the task by President Jonathan following Stephen Davis’ request for a trusted, senior Muslim person who could be the face of the Presidency and fully vary the President’s authority; c) Ambassador Tukur rarely makes public statements and yet has given at least two media interviews of considerable detail. This is a clear signal that the President Jonathan has taken a decision to resolve the matter. Tukur’s public involvement is a forceful statement of seriousness of the Presidency to secure a solution;
d) It is doubtful whether any of the topmost sponsors of Boko Haram will be arrested or prosecuted by the security agencies. Rather the apparent immunity from arrest plants doubt in the minds of Boko Haram that the sponsors are very powerful. Negatives e) Neither former governor Sheriff or the former COS have been invited for interrogation; f) The Director General State Security Services (DGSSS) has provided political protection for Sheriff for a considerable time and this has been interpreted as Presidential protection; g) The Nigerian Presidency appears to have lied about the presence of Sheriff at the meeting between Presidents in Chad. The CSMN believes that ideology is responsible for this lie. h) The initial euphoria in the northeast that Sheriff would be arrested after he was publically named as a Boko Haram sponsor has dissipated and people are once again feeling the burden of corruption and impunity; i) Those who had come forward after the public naming of Sheriff to produce information about Sheriff attesting to his corruption and links to Boko Haram have melted away for fear of being arrested by the State Security Services (SSS); j) The DGSSS ignored President Jonathan’s direct instruction to arrest Boko Haram’s Alhaji who supplies arms and uniforms when the Alhaji visited Nigeria from Egypt. The DGSSS was given all personal details by the negotiator including aliases, a recent full face photo, phone numbers, location and a relative of the Alhaji who could identify the Alhaji but DGSSS failed to act; k) The Inspector General of Police (IGP) similarly failed to act on the same information when he too was personally instructed to do so by President Jonathan; l) Consequently the Alhaji has walked free but does intend to return to Nigeria in the coming weeks; m) Of the five persons that carried out the Abuja bombing at the Nyanya motor park three were arrested and were held in custody by the SSS at SSS Headquarters in Maitama, Abuja. When it was made known that the three arrested were blood relatives and nephews to the person who until recently was in charge of currency transactions at the Central Bank of Nigeria there was considerable pressure on the DGSSS to interrogate them about the sponsors of Boko Haram. The DGSSS unfortunately paraded five persons said by the SSS to be responsible for the bombing with the statement that none were blood relatives either to each other or to any person in the CBN. The three who carried out the bombing were not among those paraded. Further, there is now evidence that at least one of the perpetrators is now with the Alhaji in Egypt; n) Isa Damaska also known as Mohammed Bashir, the “fake” Shekau was said to have been killed by either the Nigerian military or the Cameroon military. Both claimed credit. It has emerged that Bashir was captured alive. In a video of Bashir after capture a military
person was heard saying, “waste him, waste him”. Bashir was subsequently executed. A similar fate had early befallen Mohammed Yusuf when he was captured in 2009. He was handed over to the Borno Police who, it is strongly suggested, was executed on the command of Sheriff who was at that time Governor and Chief Security Officer of Borno State. o) BujiFoi, whom Sheriff appointed as Minter of Religious Affairs for Borno State was a most senior Boko Haram member. He was arrested by the military and he advised that Governor Sheriff should be contacted as this was a security matter of utmost importance. Foi was executed when Sheriff refused to intervene to save him. Like Yusuf and Bashir’s executions, the killing of Foi was also videoed. So it appears that three of the most significant Boko Haram members who could each have given damning evidence against the sponsors of Boko Haram were not interrogated but executed extra-judicially; this also has an ideological coloration. p) It is extremely unlikely that all the Chibok girls are alive and well. The girls who have escaped the Boko Haram camps we have interviewed (10 girls) report being repeatedly raped. Most girls were raped more than once each day and some by different groups of men several times each day. Boko Harm commanders have reported that some girls have been raped to death. It is likely that if 220 girls are handed over as a result of the current dialogue then the deceased Chibok girls will be replaced by other girls who have been kidnapped. In such a case the media will be very unlikely to interview all the girls to discover the truth; At a Channel programme of Saturday, October 25, 2014 one the discussants said that one of the escaped girls from Boko Haram after medical examination was pregnant and had HIV. q) Apart from the Chibok girls to be handed over the IGP’s office estimates there are an additional 300 girls who have been kidnapped in the last year and remain unaccounted for. The number of boys kidnapped is not known. r) Some Boko Haram sponsors and associates including Al Qa’eda will not be pleased about any peace discussions and will do all in their power to prevent a successful conclusion to the peace discussions, by mounting attacks to break the ceasefire and restart the conflict. These attacks are to be expected but the government should have warned the public of such likely attempts. Without such prior warning the public is likely to lose faith and hope in the government ability to bring an end to the insurgency. s) While the résistance to a peace deal by some sponsors will be enormous. It is important to get one group to sign a peace deal and demobilize to break the nexus. Others will follow. Thus the strategy should not be to get all Boko Haram on board to one peace agreement but to target a series of smaller groups led by commanders disposed to a peace deal which will encourage other commanders to follow suit. There are many Boko Haram
commanders who do not wish to continue the fight but have no way to exit. The Nigeria public must be informed that what is happening with respect to the cease fire are usual in such negotiations.
39. Conclusion We have in this presentation shown that as a third world country at Independence in 1960, Nigeria agreed and was determined to pursue the path of Liberal Democracy. As a matter of fact our leader dismissed off hand any other form of government. It would appear that leadership of a section of the country would rather have something different – a system of rule and a society of which the main ingredient is Islamic Law - Sharia. unfortunately this was not discussed and those Nigerians that want this alternative system looked up to the Arab world especially Egypt. The older generation of leadership were trained in England and admired the British System, while the alternative ideological group was made up of those Educated in Nigeria, Sudan, and Pakistan which would rather have the Sharia ideology than Liberal Democracy. The underlying reason is how to perpetuate military rule and the entrenchment of dictatorship.
40. This process was responsible for the ideological war now raging in the country. Democracy and democratic processes take time but cannot be developed fast in a primitive society, poor and backward especially where religion and ethnicity play a very important part. In the ideological war in Nigeria, insecurity, corruption, impunity are legitimate weapons, and the country’s indices in these areas are very high. This presentation has the following objectives. a) To remind those who know and those too young to know that theAmalgamation was not a magic wand for unity. Like a tree, unity has to be cultivated and these British paid to do, and when the country gained independence we continued in the old Colonial ways of divide and rule. It is time we begin to promote unity not division. b) To show that military leadership between 1975 and 1999 in the promotion of new ideology tried to bury democracy but could not, and when it was compelled to hand over power, it left a country with a constitution which can be manipulated by subjecting it to Muslim Law as the source of all legislation not the Constitution. c) That the “invisible” government at the Villa is Sharia and Islamic and Christians have to perform fire brigade functions anytime it encroaches on the liberty of the people. In the circumstance Christians must dismantle this invisible government by education and democratic enlightenment.
41. To achieve these objectives the way forward include (a) Truth and Reconciliation and (b) Constituent Assembly to approve a new constitution with one ideology not two as the 1999 Constitution and thereafter approved by the people of Nigeria in a referendum.
42. Truth and Reconciliation Commission The allegations contained in this presentation are material for a Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The intelligence community from this document has many questions to answer. When one is sent for security clearance, is the clearance made on the basis of Section 14 of the Constitution or Sharia. The intelligence agency cannot claim ignorance of events in the country listed in paragraph above, some even suggest that the intelligence agencies were the promoters. In a Truth and Reconciliation Commission those who looted one treasury will have the opportunity to confess and ask for forgiveness. They also include those who have murdered, and for this the list is very long which the investigating agencies have not been able to source and in particular the Attorney General of the Federation Chief Bola Ige. It must be pointed out that countries that have adopted a Truth and Reconciliation Commissions at an ad hoc basis, and those with permanent Commissions have found out the commission throws up new problems. However we are confident that we have legal minds that could draft a Bill for the National Assembly that can overcome these difficulties.
43. Truth and Reconciliation Commission should have taken place in 1953 after the Kano Riot that spread to some cities of the North which the Sardauna described in these words: "the Saturday – trouble broke out between Kano City and Sabon Gari, the area outside the walls occupied by ‘native foreigners’ (mostly Southerners). This was the culmination of a series of incidents in the past few weeks which had had their origin in the troubles in Lagos. While the Action Group in Lagos had been the prime mover, they had been supported by the NCNC. Here in Kano, as things fell out, the fighting took place between the Hausas (especially from the 'tough' suburb of Fagge) and the Ibos; the Yorubas (of the Action Group persuasion) were, oddly enough, out of it. Very large numbers were involved on both sides and the casualties were severe in numbers, though not in proportion to the crowds involved. The rioting went on all through Sunday and into Monday morning: peace was reluctantly accepted by the combatants, though they were in fact very tired by then. In the end there were 31 deaths and 241 wounded. The number of police injured was very small and no troops were employed though we had them standing by. This was the first time that anything of this sort-that is, real intertribal fighting -had taken place since the British occupation. And it was most disquieting.” Emphasis supplied [My Life by Sir Ahmadu Bello Sardauna of Sokoto pages 136-137]
44. Truth and Reconciliation Commission should have taken place after the two coups of 1966 January and July of that year and the pogrom that followed.
45. It should have taken place in 1971 after the three years civil wars of 1967 – 1970 notwithstanding the three Rs – Reconciliation, Reconstruction and Rehabilitation.
46. It should have taken place in 1989 before the 1999 Constitution was written and before civil rule. The saying that “it is better late than never” is appropriate in view of the threat of Boko Haram.
47. Nigeria’s problem is the ideological war waged by Boko Haram against Liberal Democracy. The combination of the Report of the just concluded Constitutional Conference and the Report of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission should enable Nigerian lawyers, like the lawyers of the United States to draft an appropriate and acceptable Constitution for the consideration of a Constituent Assembly followed by a Referendum. Christians in Nigeria for once must be pro-active because the alternative is death and destruction. Pro-active by civil disobedient including civilized street protest until our demands are met.
May the good Lord deliver us from the hands of evil men and women. Amen.
Issued by: The Governing Council Christian Social Movement of Nigeria CSMN
Abuja 28th October 2014
The Christian Social Movement of Nigeria and Islamic Fundamentalism
Table of Content Pages
Introduction … … … … … 1
Reason for Amalgamation … … … … … 2 - 3
Liberal Democracy … … … … … 3 - 4
Sharia and the Muslim Brotherhood … … … … … 4 - 6
Sharia and Maitatsine Enquiry 1981 … … … … … 6 - 8
Membership of Islamic Organization … … … … … 8- 9
Politics under Sharia … … … … … 9 - 11
The Courts … … … … … 11 - 12
Working from set Answers by the Invisible Government … … 12
Weakening Local Government by the Invisible Government… … 12 - 13
The Use of Security Apparatus by the Invisible Government … 13
Events of Note Since 1975 … … … … … 13 - 14
a. Fundamental Movements … … … … … 13
b. Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) 13 - 14
Nigeria first Suicide Bomber … … … … … 14 - 15
Boko Haram … … … … … 15 - 16
Boko Haram and the Intelligence Agency … … … … 16 - 19
Conclusion … … … … … 19 - 20
Truth and Reconciliation Commission … … … … 20 - 21